by Ashley Jordan Ferira, PhD, RDN
Recent research from three well-known cohorts, The Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), NHS2 and Health Professionals’ Follow-Up Study (HPFS), reveals that higher magnesium intake is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), particularly in diets with poor carbohydrate quality.1
Green leafy vegetables, unrefined whole grains, and nuts are richest in magnesium, while meats and milk contain a moderate amount.2 Refined foods, like carbohydrates (carb), are poor sources of magnesium. Diets with poor carb quality are characterized by higher glycemic index (GI), higher glycemic load (GL), and lower fiber intake. These poor carbs require a higher insulin demand.
The typical American diet is low in vegetables and whole grains, resulting in reduced magnesium intake. The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for magnesium is 310-320 mg/day for adult women and 400-420 mg/day for adult men.3 Half of the US population fails to meet their daily magnesium needs, and hypomagnesemia exists in 1/3 of adults.4-5 Magnesium is needed for normal insulin signaling; current research has linked insufficient magnesium intake to prediabetes, insulin resistance and T2D.4 Increased magnesium intake has been inversely associated with T2D risk in observational studies.6
Collaborators from Tufts University, Harvard University, and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, sought to investigate the impact of magnesium intake, from both dietary and supplemental sources, on the risk of developing T2D in subjects who had diets with poor carb quality and raised GI, GL, or low fiber intake.1 They followed three large prospective cohorts, NHS, NHS2 and HPFS (totaling over 202,700 participants). Dietary intake was quantified by validated food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) every 4 years, and T2D cases were captured via questionnaires. Over 28 years of follow-up, there were 17,130 cases of T2D.
Major study findings included:1
Similar to the US population estimates, 40-50% of study participants had inadequate magnesium intake. A healthful, varied diet and supplemental magnesium (especially in diets that restrict or exclude carbohydrates, dairy or meat) are essential to ensure sufficient daily magnesium intake.
Why is this Clinically Relevant?
Link to Abstract
An antioxidant introduction
In the world of antioxidants, coenzyme Q10, otherwise known as CoQ10, stands out as a key player in optimizing human health. It’s one of the most significant lipid antioxidants that helps prevent free radical generation and subsequent modification of proteins, lipids, and DNA.1 Naturally produced in the body,2CoQ10 is a fat-soluble enzyme,1 and the highest levels in humans are found in the heart, liver, kidneys, and pancreas.3
The history of CoQ10
CoQ10, a type of the coenzyme Q group, was first identified in 1940 and known under various names such as ubidecarenone, ubiquinone, ubiquinol, and vitamin Q10. In 1957, CoQ10 was isolated from mitochondria of the beef heart. Although there are several types of coenzyme Q, the most common type of coenzyme Q in human mitochondria is CoQ10. CoQ10 is also found in meat and fatty fish and in smaller quantities within whole grains, nuts, and vegetables.1
CoQ10 plays a significant role in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and is critical for the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is necessary for energy transport throughout the body as well as supporting the cardiovascular system overall. 1,2
While the body naturally produces CoQ10, this ability to make CoQ10 peaks around 20 years of age and decreases with age.1 Some studies suggest certain health conditions may reduce CoQ10 levels in the body.1,4
CoQ10 has many well-researched benefits and plays an important role in many body functions:1
Use of CoQ10 should be taken with the knowledge and guidance of a healthcare practitioner to avoid any potential adverse interactions with existing medications.
1. Saini R. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2011;3(3):466–467.
2. Coenzyme Q10. Linus Pauling Institute: Micronutrient Information Center. Available at: https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/dietary-factors/coenzyme-Q10. Accessed April 5, 2019.
3. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. https://nccih.nih.gov/health/coq10. Accessed April 25, 2019.
4. Garrido-Maraver J et al. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2014;19:619-633.
Submitted by the Metagenics Marketing Team
Fish and shellfish are full of healthy fats, vitamins, and minerals. Great for our physical and cognitive wellbeing, they’re a solid addition to a nutritious diet.1
That said, not all seafood is created equal. This post will outline the differences between farm-raised and wild-caught fish, including their impact on our health and the environment.
What are the differences between farm-raised and wild-caught fish? Fishermen catch wild fish and shellfish in lakes, rivers, oceans, and other bodies of water. These fish eat a natural diet.
Farmed fish are bred for human consumption through a process called aquaculture. This means they live outside their natural environment and are generally given processed feed.2
Specifically, farmed fish are placed in pens submerged in ponds, lakes, or even saltwater.1 Some pens are filled with water and kept on land.
While this might not sound ideal, fish farming isn’t inherently bad. Sustainable farming practices have become more common than ever, as the World Bank estimates that almost two-thirds of seafood will be farm-raised by 2030. In Norway and Canada, for instance, most farmed salmon are cultivated through an eco-friendly recirculating aquaculture system.3
Here are some other items to consider:
Nutrition: Which fish variety is better for your health?Fish have been shown in clinical studies to display anti-inflammatory properties, not to mention being rich in heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids.3 The overall quality of seafood, however, depends largely on what fish eat. Wild fish consume a natural diet lower in saturated fats.5
What does this mean? Let’s focus on salmon for a moment. In addition to being higher in saturated fat than wild salmon, farmed salmon contains more omega-3s and 46% more calories. The wild-caught stuff, however, is richer in minerals like potassium, zinc, and iron.4
Consider the following when evaluating both fish varieties for your health:
Most people consume too much omega-6, which may cause inflammation and other symptoms. And farm-raised salmon specifically—despite containing higher quantities of omega-3—has a significantly higher omega-3-to-omega-6 ratio.4 The ratio is still good enough, but it isn’t quite at the level you would find in wild seafood.
Of course, the trace metals found in fish aren’t limited to mercury. Farmed salmon contains higher arsenic levels, while wild salmon contains more cobalt, copper, and cadmium.7 Fortunately, levels of trace metals in both wild and farmed fish are usually so low they’re unlikely to harm the average person.4
Some studies indicate that farm-raised fish have higher levels of contaminants.4 Furthermore, seafood raised via aquaculture may have a higher rate of disease because of some of the farming practices and conditions.5
For example, approximately 530 grams of antibiotics were used per ton of harvested Chilean salmon in 2016. (In contrast, Norway used just 1 gram of antibiotics per ton of harvested salmon in 2008.)4As such, it’s essential that you understand where your fish is from before consumption.
Sustainability: Which fish variety is better for the environment?Fish accounts for 17% of our global protein intake.8 For this reason, we can’t rely on wild-caught fish alone. There just isn’t enough wild seafood to keep up with the growing demand.
Based on our current trajectory, there’s a global need for another 80 million tons of farmed fish per year by 2050.8 Yet aquaculture may be detrimental to the environment too. Use of antibiotics can cause damage to the environment and adversely affect human health as well.4
Moreover, when lots of fish are crammed together in a small space like a pen, they create a ton of waste that can pollute rivers, lakes, and oceans.8
And the environmental consequences of fish farming doesn’t end there, either. Some fish farms are disease-ridden, which can be toxic to the environment; in Indonesia, shrimp farming specifically has contributed to the decline of the nation’s mangrove forests.8
Since we don’t want to deplete what’s left of our wild fish resources, where does that leave us?
Fortunately, some experts say that feeding farmed fish a higher-quality diet free from antibiotics can help address some of the problems described above. Similarly, as fish farmers gain efficiency, governments will be more likely to offer incentives for the adoption of sustainable practices.8 Ideally, the environment will become an even greater focus for everyone in the near future.
The verdict on wild-caught vs. farm-raised fishWhile wild seafood is generally healthier than farmed fish and shellfish, sustainable methods make many farm-raised options completely viable. Both wild-caught and farm-raised fish varieties offer plenty of protein, the omega-3 Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and other essential nutrients.4
To make sure you’re eating top-quality seafood, be sure to look into where your seafood is from, and opt to eat local, low-mercury varieties when possible.
For more information on nutrition and general wellness topics, please visit the Metagenics blog.